When we hear the word chemistry, it often brings to mind images of chemicals, beakers, test tubes, burners, and a scientist working on a powerful potion. Chemistry is all around us, and it’s truly fascinating. The subject we are discussing has a significant impact on improving and simplifying our daily lives by providing us with numerous useful tools and resources.
Chemistry is a scientific discipline that lies between physics and biology in terms of its scope. It is commonly known as “core science” because it serves as a foundational framework for comprehending various basic and applied scientific fields. Chemistry is a scientific discipline that encompasses various fields of study. For instance, it helps us understand plant chemistry in the context of botany, the formation of igneous rocks in geology, the process of atmospheric ozone formation and the degradation of environmental pollutants in ecology, the properties of lunar soil in cosmochemistry, the mechanisms of medications in pharmacology, and the collection of DNA evidence at crime scenes in criminology (forensics).
Chemistry plays a crucial role in various aspects of our daily lives, particularly in the fields of medicine, food production, and detergent manufacturing.
Chemistry in Our Everyday Life
Human Body Composition
- The human physique is truly captivating, for it is composed of an intricate amalgamation of a multitude of chemical compounds.
- Carbon and oxygen are unquestionably the paramount constituents of the human body.
- The various chemical compounds present in our body are the result of intricate amalgamations of a select few elemental constituents, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others.
- The diversity in combinations yields distinct formulas. These chemicals undergo a process of arrangement to generate a highly significant entity.
- It is important to note that every component present within the human body serves a distinct function.
- Chemistry is present throughout the entirety of the human body, from the construction of the cell membrane through the formation of hemoglobin.
Chemistry of the Human Body
|Element||Presence in the body (%)||Function|
|Oxygen(O)||Approximately 65||It is the primary solvent.|
It helps to control both temperature and osmotic pressure.
|Carbon (C)||Approximately 18||It is an energy source and building block of the body.|
|Hydrogen (H)||Approximately 10||It is present in water and organic molecules.|
|Nitrogen||Approximately 3.1||It is in proteins and nucleic acid.|
|Calcium (Ca)||Approximately 1.5||It is important for muscle contraction.|
|Phosphorus (P)||Approximately 1.1||It strengthens bones and teeth.|
|Potassium (K)||Approximately 0.37||It helps to regulate the heartbeat and it is also an electrolyte.|
|Sulfur (S)||Approximately 0.22||It helps protein to function properly.|
|Sodium (Na)||Approximately 0.18||It helps to signal nerves.|
|Iron (Fe)||Approximately 0.007||It helps to produce blood.|
|Magnesium (Mg)||Approximately 0.05||It helps in 300-plus biochemical reactions.|
|Less than 0.007||Copper is a micronutrient needed for growth and metabolism.|
Zinc aids cell growth, division, wound healing, and carbohydrate breakdown.
|Less than 0.007||Fluorine mineralizes tooth enamel.|
Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormones.
Importance of Chemistry In Drugs / Medicine
- A drug can be defined as a chemical compound that exerts a discernible impact on the intricate processes of human metabolism, thereby offering a potential remedy or amelioration for a specific ailment or pathological condition.
- Pharmaceutical substances, commonly referred to as drugs, are chemical compounds that engage in intricate interactions with macromolecular targets within biological systems, thereby provoking a discernible physiological or biochemical response.
- Medicines, also known as pharmaceuticals, encompass a class of chemical substances that are employed for the purpose of ameliorating diseases and alleviating pain.
- The field of chemistry has undeniably yielded substantial advancements that have greatly impacted the realm of health care.
- Chemistry, as an illustrative discipline, plays a pivotal role in facilitating the production and utilization of surgical materials, encompassing sutures, artificial skin, and sterile substances.
- In the realm of analysis, clinical laboratory tests utilize a diverse array of chemical methodologies and compounds.
Some of the important drugs in chemistry are:
- Disinfectants refer to chemical agents that are utilized to eliminate or reduce the presence of microorganisms.
- These substances possess the capacity to eradicate microorganisms, although their usage poses inherent risks to human health and well-being.
- Antiseptics are employed for the purpose of eradicating or impeding the proliferation of microorganisms on the dermis, as well as on lesions and lacerations.
- Antibiotics, a class of pharmaceutical agents, are chemical substances that possess the ability to inhibit the Antibiotics are bioactive compounds synthesized by certain microorganisms, which possess the capability to selectively eradicate bacterial pathogens responsible for various infectious ailments.
- Antacids, a class of compounds, serve the purpose of mitigating surplus gastric acid and elevating the pH to a physiologically balanced state within the stomach.
- Tranquilizers, also known as anxiolytics, are pharmacological agents employed in the management of various psychiatric disorders. Consider, for instance, the concept of tension.
- Analgesics, commonly referred to as pain relievers, are pharmacological substances employed for the purpose of alleviating pain associated with a diverse range of medical conditions.
Chemistry in Soaps and Detergents
- Soaps can be defined as sodium and potassium salts derived from fatty acids possessing higher molecular weights, including stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid.
- When making detergents, sodium salts made from long-chain alkyl hydrogen sulfates or sodium salts made from long-chain alkyl benzene sulfonic acids are often used.
- Detergents and soaps serve multifarious purposes, encompassing the domains of washing, cleansing, and bathing, among a plethora of other applications.
- Chemical companies employ the Saponification technique for the production of said entities.
- Consequently, the field of chemistry assumes a pivotal role in the advancement of molecular entities, chemical compounds, and methodologies pertaining to the synthesis of cleansing agents such as soaps and detergents.
Types of Soap
There are different types of soap some of which are included here:
- The production of floating soap can be achieved through the application of vigorous agitation upon soap bubbles.
- Toilet soaps are personal care products commonly used for cleansing the body.
- Potassium soaps exhibit lower hardness compared to sodium soaps.
- Medicated soaps refer to cleansing products that contain medicinal ingredients.
- These products incorporate small quantities of disinfectants such as Dettol and Savlon.
- Transparent soaps are a type of soap that has a clear appearance.
- The solution consists of soap dissolved in an excess amount of alcohol, which is subsequently evaporated.
Types of Detergents
Some of the important types of Detergents are as follows:
- An anionic detergent is a type of surfactant that carries a negative charge in its hydrophilic (water-loving) head group.
- In this particular category, anions function as surfactants. One example is sodium lauryl sulfate.
- Cationic detergents are characterized by the presence of cations that function as detergents.
- An instance of a compound that can be cited is cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide.
- Non-ionic detergents are chemically neutral.
- The entire molecule functions as a surfactant. Polyethylene glycol stearate, such as in the case of polyethylene glycol stearate.
Chemistry In Cosmetics
- Cosmetic products, including lotions, fragrances, talcum powder, and other items, are commonly used in our daily routines.
- These items are synthesized in laboratories using chemical processes to enhance our well-being and enhance the state of our skin.
- Cosmetic products, irrespective of age group, contain chemical components.
- Chemistry is essential for maintaining the pH balance of our skin, supporting its health, and removing imperfections.
Cosmetics encompass a wide range of chemical categories, which include:
- Thickeners are used to enhance the texture and consistency of a substance.
- An illustration of this can be seen with the use of cetyl alcohol and stearic acid.
- Cosmetic preservatives are incorporated to extend the longevity of these products.
- Two compounds that can be considered are benzyl alcohol and salicylic acid.
- Emollients prevent the skin from losing water, which results in the skin becoming softer.
- Glycerine and zinc oxide are two good examples.
- Emulsifiers are substances that are added to an emulsion of cosmetics in order to make it more stable.
- Take, for instance, potassium cetyl sulfate as an example.
Glimmer and Shiners
- Glimmers and shiners are used in the cosmetic to provide shine in the shine in the skin.
- Mica and bismuth oxychloride are two examples of glimmering and shining substances.
Chemistry In Textiles
- The textile industry encompasses a wide array of raw materials, exhibiting a remarkable diversity in its sourcing. These materials include but are not limited to wool, silk, jute, cotton, flax, glass fiber, polyester, acrylic, nylon, and various other constituents.
- These materials form the fundamental basis for the production of a diverse range of utilitarian and functional articles, encompassing garments, satchels, floor coverings, furnishings, linens, meshes, and various other items.
- The raw materials undergo a sequence of chemical processes wherein cleansing and polishing agents are employed to achieve purification and refinement of the material.
- In conjunction with the aforementioned chemical processes, a multitude of supplementary procedures, including Dyes, bleaching, scouring, printing, and finishing, are indispensable constituents of the comprehensive manufacturing process.
Chemistry In Food Production
- Plants partake in the intricate phenomenon of photosynthesis, a multifaceted biochemical process, with the purpose of synthesizing vital nutrients to sustain their own existence.
- The phenomenon of photosynthesis, a chemical process, holds immense significance and ubiquity in the domain of biological systems, rendering it an indispensable reaction.
- Animals, as well, partake in the intricate process of expending energy to support their daily physiological activities through comparable chemical reactions involved in respiration.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Chemistry In Food Preservatives
- Food preservatives serve the purpose of retarding the proliferation of microorganisms within food products.
- Chemical food preservatives serve the dual purpose of impeding the proliferation of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi while concurrently impeding the process of lipid oxidation, which is accountable for the development of rancidity in food products.
- The prevailing chemical food preservatives encompass sodium benzoate, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, calcium sorbate, sodium sorbate, propionic acid, and the salts derived from nitrous acid.
Types of Chemical In Food
- Artificial Preservatives serve the purpose of impeding the proliferation of microbes, ultimately preventing the spoilage of food.
- As an illustrative instance, the compounds under consideration are sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulfite.
- Artificial sweeteners, by virtue of their chemical composition, do not contribute any caloric value to the human body, as they are eliminated from the system via urinary excretion.
- Let us consider, by way of illustration,
- Aspartame: It is a low-calorie artificial sweetener, that has been a subject of considerable scientific inquiry This substance finds application in the preparation of chilled beverages and frozen desserts.
- Alitame: It is a high-intensity artificial sweetener, and is a compound that has garnered significant attention. This substance exhibits a sweetness level that surpasses sucrose by a factor of two thousand.
- Antioxidants serve the purpose of impeding the deterioration of food by hindering the process of oxidation. To illustrate,
- Butylated hydroxyl tolerance (BHT)
- Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)
- Dyes are chromatic organic compounds employed for the purpose of imbuing diverse substrates, such as paper, leather, fur, hair, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, with hues.
- Dyes can be categorized into two distinct groups:
- Natural Dyes
- Synthetic Dyes.
Chemistry In Digestion
- After food is consumed, various chemical reactions occur in the gastrointestinal system. Saliva contains amylase, an important digestive enzyme that plays a key role in carbohydrate digestion.
- Simultaneously, the gastric region initiates the production of hydrochloric acid, while the hepatic organ releases bile.
- This exposition provides a glimpse into the wide range of compounds released during the complex process of digestion.
- Each Enzyme undergoes chemical reactions to facilitate the digestion and assimilation of nutrients.
Chemistry In Sunscreen
- There are two discrete classifications of solar radiation that present noteworthy hazards to human well-being, specifically UV-A and UV-B rays.
- The principal objective of sunscreen is to function as a physical barrier, comparable to a screen, which provides protection to the skin against the detrimental consequences of sunburn, particularly caused by UV-B radiation.
- On the contrary, a sunblock exhibits a heightened reflective attribute, thereby efficaciously impeding the penetration of both UV-A and UV-B radiation.
Chemistry in Emotions
Whenever we humans go through emotional rides such as happiness, sadness, excitement, fear, and stress many chemicals get released in our bodies. This is all due to the transmittance of chemical messages from neurotransmitters in the brain.
There are so many chemicals involved with emotions that only the most important ones can be listed. The following are neurotransmitters: dopamine (C8H11NO2), serotonin (C10H12N2O), noradrenaline (C8H11NO3), acetylcholine (C7NH16O2+), histamine (C5H9N3), GABA (C4H9NO2), and glutamic acid (C5H9NO4). These all are made up of chemical elements.
So, Chemistry is an integral part of our life in every aspect.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What are some everyday uses of chemistry?
Chemistry is involved in many things we use every day, like toothpaste, lotions, facewash, food, medicine, batteries, phones, cars, laptops, and fuel for vehicles.
What role does chemistry play in agriculture?
To help in the development of wholesome and nutrient-dense crops, fruits, and vegetables, chemistry has given the world essential fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. Significant fertilizers include ammonium sulfate, calcium superphosphate, sodium nitrate, and urea.
Why is chemistry important for food?
Chemicals are the basic building blocks of everything. All food is made up of chemical molecules, such as carbs, vitamins, lipids, proteins, and fiber. These molecules are safe and often good for us.
Chemicals play a crucial role in making and keeping food safe. Chemicals used for food preservation have greatly helped to keep food fresh for a longer time. Cans of food additives, flavorings, and nutritional supplements can help make meals better.