Functional Groups- Definition, Types, Structure, Examples

The functional groups are the reactive group present in compounds that determine the chemical properties of these compounds. Eg: -OH, -F, -CHO, -COOH.

Functional Groups
Functional Groups

Types of Functional Groups

Hydrocarbons

This includes alkane, alkene, alkyne, and benzene derivatives. They are typically denoted by the symbol -R. Hydrocarbons are made up of carbon and hydrogen that are linked together by various types of bonds, such as single, double, and triple bonds that determine their reactivity. E.g., alkane, alkene, alkyne.

Haloalkanes

Haloalkanes are alkyl halides that consist of a carbon-halogen bond. The strength and stability of the carbon-halogen bond determine the reactivity of these compounds. E.g., chloroalkane, bromoalkane, iodoalkane

Nitrogen containing functional group

These are the functional groups containing carbon-nitrogen bonds. They typically contain amines and amides. E.g., amides, amines, imines, azo compounds

Oxygen containing functional groups

They consist of the carbon-oxygen bond. The properties of compounds containing carbon-oxygen bonds are determined by the hybridization of the carbon-oxygen bond. E.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, peroxides.

Sulphur containing functional groups

This type of functional group consists of the carbon-oxygen bond. Sulfur-containing compounds have distinct chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than oxygen. E.g., thiols, thials, disulfur.

Phosphorous containing functional groups

Phosphorus-containing compounds have distinct chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than nitrogen. Many phosphorous-containing functional groups consist of carbon-phosphorous and phosphorous-oxygen bonds. Phosphate diphosphate and triphosphate groups are linked to carbon via phosphate ester linkages in a variety of organic compounds. E.g., phosphine, phosphate group.

List of 35 different functional groups

S.N.Functional groupStructurePrefixSuffixExamples
1.Carboxylic groupcarboxy-oic acidEthanoic acid(CH3COOH)
2.Acid Anhydride-oic anhydrideEthanoic anhydride (CH3COOCOCH3)
3.Carboxylic esteralkoxycarbonyl-carboxylateMethylethanoate
(CH3COOCH3)
4.Amideamide-carbomylEthanamide (CH3CONH2)
5.Nitrilecyano-nitrileEthane nitrile(CH3CN)
6.Aldehydeoxo or formyl-al,
-carbaldehyde
Propanal
(C2H5CHO)
7.Ketoneoxo-onePropanone
(CH3COCH3)
8.Alcoholhydroxy-olButanol (C4H9OH)
9.Amineamino-amineMethyl amine (CH3NH2)
10.Alkeneenyl-enePropene(C3H6)
11.Alkyneynyl-ynePropyne (C3H4)
12.Alkylyl-aneEthane (C2H6)
13.Alkyl halidehalo(fluro, chloro, bromo, iodo)– alkyl halideChloropropane(C3H7Cl)
14.EtheroxyetherDimethyl ether (CH3OCH3)
15.SulphidealkylthiosulfideDimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3)
16.NitronitroNitromethane (CH3NO2)
17.Benzene
phenylbenzeneEthylbenzene (C6H5C2H5)
18.Disulphidesubstituent disalfanyl-disulfideDimethyl disulfide (CH3-S-S-CH3)
19.Thiolmercapto-thiolPropane-1-thiol (C3H7SH)
20.IsocyanoisocyanoisonitrileMethyl isonitrile (CH3NC)
21.Cyanatecyanate
22.IsocyanateisocyanteMethyl isocyanate (CH3NCO)
23.Peroxide(R)-peroxyperoxideDimethyl peroxide(C2H6O2)
24.HydroperoxyhydroperoxyhydroperoxideMethyl peroxide (CH4O2)
25.Alcoholates, PhenolatesoxidoGlyoxylic acid methyl ester methyl alcoholate (C4H7O4)
26.Sulphonatessulfonato-sulfonateNaphthalene-1-sulphonate (C10H7O3S)
27.Sulfonic acidsulfo-sulfonic acidBenzene sulfonic acid (C6H6O3S)
28.epoxideepoxy-ene oxidePropylene oxide (C3H6O)
29.azoazoAzobenzene (C12H10O2)
30.Sulfoxidesulfinyl-sulphoxideDimethyl sulphoxide (CH3SOCH3)
31.Sulfonesulfonyl-sulfone Dimethyl sulfone (CH3SO2CH3)
32.Sulfinic acidsulfino-sulfinic acidPropanesulfinic acid (C3H7SO2H)
33.ThialthialMethanethial (CH3SH)
34.ThiocyantethiocyanateEthyl thiocyanate
(C2H5-S-CN)
35.phosphinephosphanyl-phosphane(C3H7-PH2)

References

  1. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/Sacramento_City_College/SCC%3A_CHEM_330_-Adventures_in_Chemistry(Alviar-Agnew)/09%3A_Organic_Chemistry/9.09%3A_Nitrogen-Containing_Compounds-_Amines_and_Amides
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/functional-group
  3. https://kpu.pressbooks.pub/organicchemistry/chapter/2-4-naming-of-organic-compounds-with-functional-groups/
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_group
  5. https://byjus.com/chemistry/functional-groups/
  6. https://www.vedantu.com/chemistry/nomenclature-functional-groups
  7. https://www.compoundchem.com/2020/02/21/functional-groups/

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